Lawn Care Guide

Acid Soil

Definition: The acidity of soil is determined by the concentration of hydrogen (H) ions. The more hydrogen there is, the more acidic the soil will be. Soil that has a pH lower than 7.0 is considered acidic. Knowing if your soil is acidic, or not, is important to proper yard care, because acid-rich soil is only suitable for certain plants. Typically, acid soil is found in moist climates.

Adjuvant

Definition: A chemical agent that can be added to spray tanks in order to modify the spray solution, making it spread, stick, or wet better. Using an adjuvant may increase the effectiveness of herbicides for plant growth or weed prevention.

Aeration

Definition: The removal of small soil plugs from a lawn, and the introduction of air to the soil. Lawn aeration helps prevent soil compaction, which can reduce the pore space within the soil that typically holds air. Since roots need oxygen to grow, a compacted lawn can result in low nutrient uptake for grass and a physical barrier for root growth. Aerating is essential to proper lawn care, as it can help improve growth and prevent fertilizer and pesticide runoff.

Alkaline Soil

Definition: A soil that contains a pH of 7.0 or higher, sometimes referred to as sweet soil. Determination of an alkaline soil is based on the concentration of hydrogen (h) ions; the less hydrogen, the more alkaline the soil. Knowing whether your soil is alkaline or not, is crucial to effective yard care, as some plants will not do well in soil that is too alkaline. This type of soil is typically found in dryer climates.

Annual Bluegrass

Definition: Typically grows in fairway or lawn settings, will develop dense patches that can adapt to most mowing heights- even the lowest settings. It typically germinates all year round and is fueled by cool, moist conditions. Proper weed control is essential, as this type of weed impedes grass and plant growth due to an increase in competition for nutrients and water.

Annual Ryegrass

Definition: Can be planted on its own, or mixed in with other grass mixtures, when seeding a lawn. Due to its versatility and rapid growth rate, annual ryegrass is ideal for lawn and pasture purposes in cooler temperatures. This grass typically lasts one season and is ideal for newly sown lawns, or any place that needs instant green coverage.

Annual Weeds

Definition: This type of weed grows and sprouts quickly in the spring; it flowers, sets seeds, and then dies before winter. If the weed gets to the point of setting seeds, it can drop hundreds, or thousands of seeds, that may stay in the soil for years waiting for the right conditions to germinate. Annual weeds reappear from year to year, and can cause problems with grass and plant growth as they compete for nutrients.

Anthracnose

Definition: Anthracnose is a group of fungal diseases that affects several varieties of shade trees, and is the result from an infection by various fungi. Typically, this type of disease will appear in moist or wet conditions, which is when it spreads the easiest. It will not spread under dry conditions. The symptoms vary with the host and affect new or young growth, sometimes causing brown patches, curling, or leaf distortion. Proper tree care measures can help prevent this condition.

Aphid

Definition: Also known as plant lice, these small, soft-bodied insects are common pests that can kill nearly all indoor and outdoor plant life including vegetables, fruit trees, or field crops. There are several different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host, others that attack several. They exist in a myriad of colors, but all have two tubes on their backs that secrete defensive substances.

Auricle

Definition: Used for identifying different types of grass, depending on the shape and presence. An auricle is typically a short claw-shaped, rounded, or pointed attachment at the base of a leaf blade, which tends to attach the lower part of the leaf to the stem of the leaf or blade.

Bermuda Grass

Definition: A type of grass that is mainly used on golf courses and athletic fields, but can also be used on lawns. Bermuda grass quickly recovers from damage, spreads easily, and tends to grow well in poor soils. This type of grass is best used if grass and lawn care are done on a very regular basis and the rainfall or watering is frequent. Due to its rapid growth, new lawns can experience growing grass and full coverage in 60-90 days.

Biennial Weeds

Definition: This type of weed grows in two seasons. In the first season they remain in a vegetative state and rarely flower or set seeds. In the second season, the biennial weed will flower, set seeds, and then typically dies. Proper maintenance of grass and lawn care can prevent the occurrence of biennial weeds which can take nutrients and water from grass or other plant life.

Billbug

Definition: A type of insect with several different species that typically attacks Kentucky bluegrass, but also attacks perennial ryegrass, fescues and lawn turf. Adult billbugs are grayish in color and have no legs, but push and pull themselves through the soil like a worm. Only a few species cause significant harm, but preventative grass and lawn care measures should be taken to prevent future damage.

Blade

Definition: A single piece of grass. A blade is mostly hollow, cylindrical in shape, and interrupted at intervals by joints or connecting pieces called nodes. The leaf of a blade of grass is typically long and narrow with a tapered point. A healthy blade of grass results from proper grass care and lawn maintenance.

Blend Seed

Definition: A mixture of one or more types of grass seed. Seed blends typically tend to adapt to different lawns better; for example, some blends are formulated to grow grass better in either a shady or sunny area. Blended seeding, also, helps prevent some lawn diseases: different grasses differ in their susceptibility to various lawn fungi, so some types of grass may get weaker while others will be resistant.

Broadleaf Weed Control

Definition: The control of unsightly broadleaf weeds including dandelions, chickweed, henbit, clover, and much more. These types of weeds can increase lawn care, mowing requirements, and delay the recovery of growing grass. For total lawn care and broadleaf weed control, regular mowing along with proper fertilization, or chemical control, can eliminate these types of weeds.

Brown Patch

Definition: A fungal disease that typically occurs midsummer and results in unattractive patches of browned, or blighted turf. On some lawns, it can appear as roughly circular patches that can range in size. If proper lawn care is not utilized, a lawn with this disease can appear wilted despite sufficient moisture in the soil. Maintaining proper grass care, and not over fertilizing, can prevent brown patch from occurring.

Bunch Type Growth Habit

Definition: A habit among growing grasses where the blades appear bunched. A bunch-type growth habit is usually due to the production of a lot of tillers, or growth units from the base of the blades. The growth of the grass, or plant, then only happens by tillering, which makes the stem bend evenly along its entire length, resulting in a bunch.

Canker

Definition: Dead sections that appear on the main trunk or branches of trees. Cankers, usually, occur from mechanical injuries, fungal, or bacterial infections. This type of disease can quickly cause a lot of harm to the infected tree and kill all of the bark on a main stem or branch; if the main stem or trunk is infected, the entire tree could die. Mechanical injuries can cause an opportunity for wood-rotting organisms to invade the plant. Every step to prevent cankers including proper and regular tree care and maintenance should […]

Carbon Footprint

Definition: The entire amount of greenhouse gases that are produced in order to support human activities. For example, driving a car, heating a house with gas or oil, or running a lawnmower and other lawn care equipment. Today, there are more and more environmentally friendly cars, heat sources, and yard care tools that will help decrease your carbon footprint. A healthy lawn can absorb a great deal of carbon dioxide, which also reduces the homeowner’s carbon footprint.

Castings, Earthworm

Definition: The excretions left behind by worms after they digest the organic matter that makes up their diet. Earthworm castings can greatly enhance plant growth, and if used regularly in lawn care services can also help restore soil life and health. These castings can also help improve lawn aeration and the water retention capacity of a lawn.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Definition: The amount of positively charged cations soil can hold. Basic cations, or any element with a positive charge, include calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium. Acidic cations include hydrogen and aluminum. The CEC of a soil is determined by the amount of cations, clay and humus present in the soil; the higher the number, the more cations a soil can hold. If a soil has a higher CEC, then it has a greater availability of nutrients for plant life, and a bigger capacity to hold nutrients that plant life or […]

Centipede Grass

Definition: A very low maintenance, warm season grass that grows well in sandy or clay based soil. Centipede grass needs a minimal amount of grass care, including little fertilization or mowing, and is perfect for busier lifestyles. However, with proper lawn care and maintenance, this growing grass can compete against weeds all on its own. This type of grass is typically slow growing, and takes a little bit longer to repair.

Certified Seed

Definition: A type of seed that is produced under strict certification standards in order to maintain varietal purity. Certified seed must pass field inspection, be conditioned by an approved seed conditioning plant and be sampled, and pass lab testing before it can be marked and sold as certified. This type of seed is also completely free of noxious weed seeds. The four classes of certified seed are breeder, foundation, registered seed, and certified seed, each with their own requirements. This type of seed is typically used for crops as opposed […]

Chinch Bug

Definition: A small black bodied insect with wings that typically infest different types of grass, as well as some harvest crops. If chinch bugs infect growing grass or a plant, they can injure them or impede on their growth. Proper lawn care and maintenance can help prevent chinch bug invasions.

Chlorosis

Definition: This condition refers to the yellowing of leaf tissue in result from a lack of chlorophyll. This can be caused by poor drainage, damaged roots, compacted roots, a high level of alkalinity, and/or nutrient deficiencies in the plant or tree. Maintaining proper maintenance, plant and tree care, can help prevent chlorosis from happening.

Clay

Definition: A clay soil is one that is made up of mostly clay particles. A simple test can be done to determine whether your soil is clay or not. Clay is typically very dense, and retains moisture well; it also tends to be nutrient rich which is good for attracting positively charged particles for healthy plant and grass growth. However, clay can also be slow draining, easily compacted making it difficult for root growth, and more alkaline. With the proper soil and lawn care plan in place, clay soil can […]

Clippings

Definition: Refers to the grass or lawn clippings generated from mowing. Clippings left on a lawn can help improve the turf and reduce fertilization needs. If you prefer picking up your grass clippings, they can be composted or recycled.

Coarse Fescue

Definition: This thick, perennial grassy weed requires specialized applications to remove it from a lawn.

Collar

Definition: A thin band of tissue where the grass leaf meets the sheath. The collar can be useful in identifying grasses in the early, or vegetative, stage of growth before the grass flowers.

Compost Tea

Definition: Refers to a lawn treatment that steeps compost in liquid, much like steeping a tea bag in water. This application is mostly used for fertilizing trees, lawns, shrubs and other plants. As an organic form of grass care, this treatment eliminates the need for chemicals, reduces lawn diseases and helps with growing grass, trees and other plants. Compost tea is a fertilization solution for total lawn care.

Contact Herbicide

Definition: It is a weed control method requiring a killing agent to come in direct contact with a plant or plant soil. Just how effective this herbicide will be depends upon numerous factors, including, but not limited to adjuvants, weather conditions and sunlight. Contact herbicides are just one lawn treatment used in weed prevention.

Cool Season Turf Grass

Definition: Refers to transplanted grasses that grow better in cooler weather. Turfgrass is often planted in areas, such as, stadiums and golf courses to reduce noise and air pollution, as well as reduce glare and heat buildup. Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue are examples of cool-season turfgrasses.

Core Aeration

Definition: A lawn treatment that removes plugs of hard soil to encourage air and water movement. Regular lawn aeration can prevent lawn diseases and make growing grass healthier.

Crabgrass

Definition: Refers to a grass-like plant that is often the target of weed control programs because its creeping stems root freely throughout lawns. In order to grow, crabgrass requires lots of sun. That’s why taller grass may provide the best weed prevention by shading any crabgrass seeds. Also, overseeding a lawn will be easier in non-summer months when new grass seeds won’t be competing with weeds and crabgrass.

Crane Flies

Definition: Insects, also referred to as “mosquito hawks,” that are about 1-inch long with wings and long legs. In larvae form these flies resemble brown worms known as “leatherjackets.” Most adult crane flies are harmless. Leatherjackets, however, feed on grass roots, causing the most damage to growing grass in spring. Thatch often provides hiding places and food for these larvae. Proper lawn treatments, such as core aeration, can prevent infestations.

Creeping Growth Habit

Definition: Refers to a growing grass that prefers to move across the ground, rather than straight up. Growth habit helps determine what type of grass will work best in a given area. For example, Bermuda grass has a creeping growth habit that would be hard to maintain in a cemetery. No matter the growth habit, growing grass requires proper lawn care and maintenance.

Crown

Definition: Refers to the part of a plant where the root and stem meet. Having a healthy crown is essential to growing grass. Crane fly larvae and other insects can make that difficult. Proper lawn care should include core aeration to prevent insect infestation and many lawn diseases.

Cultivar

Definition: Is a label given to plants that are cultivated for a specific purpose. It’s often recommended that a cultivar be blended with another grass, such as Kentucky bluegrass, for easier turf care. Lawn diseases can also be reduced by choosing specific cultivars for an optimal grass blend.

Cultural Practices

Definition: Practices, such as core aeration, that help maintain a healthy balance between the earth, air, and water in your lawn. Total lawn care involves developing a set of cultural practices appropriate for your specific environment.

Dallisgrass

Definition: A cool-season grass that invades turfgrass. In Bermuda grass, dallisgrass leaves grow much faster, causing more frequent mowing and lawn care. Weed control and prevention is often necessary to curb dallisgrass.

Dandelion

Definition: An herb with long roots, deeply rooted leaves and a yellow flower that turns into a white, feathery seed ball. Dandelions are perennial weeds that crowd growing grass. A proper weed control program means destroying dandelions at the root, though frequent mowing, also helps.

Dethatch

Definition:  The process of removing dead stems and built-up organic matter that locks in moisture, causing grass disease and insect infestations. Dethatching is a essential for a healthy lawn.

Disease Control

Disease Control: Methods taken to prevent growing grass from an abnormal condition that may cause death. For example, brown patch lawn disease and leaf spot are two conditions that could kill a lawn. Proper grass care and treatment can prevent many of these lawn diseases.

Dollar Spot

Definition: Refers to a lawn disease affecting turfgrass. Common signs of this grass disease are a circular, straw-colored spot in the lawn. Proper turf care is required to prevent these diseases.

Dormant Lawn

Definition: A response, similar to hibernation, that some grasses employ to prevent dying under extreme heat or cold. Though, no longer growing grass, the lawn still needs light watering for proper lawn care.

Drift

Definition: The movement of the wind that propels weed control and pesticide chemicals; anyone spraying a chemical needs to be aware and careful of wind movement. Growing grass adjacent to the target of weed prevention or pesticide sprays could be affected by drift.

Drought Stress

Definition: The limitation placed on plant life by dryer than normal conditions. Growing grass is affected when temperatures become hotter than normal with little rain. Some grasses can protect themselves by going dormant. Even dormant grasses require proper lawn care, such as light watering.

Emerald Ash Borer

Definition: An Asian beetle, discovered in the United States in 2002, that has made tree maintenance difficult. Larvae from the insect are born between the bark and sapwood of an ash tree, and as they feed, the tree is unable to properly transport water. Current ash tree care means quarantining infested trees and not transporting firewood that may contain the insect.

Endophyte

Definition: A living fungi, or algae, growing in certain types of grasses. In turfgrass, it is often a fungus that secretes a substance that repels insects. This fungus should be combined with proper lawn aeration to prevent unwanted insects.

Environment

Definition: The surroundings and conditions in which your lawn, trees and other plants live. Proper lawn care and tree maintenance depends upon keeping each plant’s surroundings healthy. Homeowners can protect a plant’s environment and care for a lawn through proper endophyte relationships combined with core aeration.

Environmentally Safe Lawn Care

Definition: Methods that help care for a lawn without detriment to the grass, trees, plants, and other surroundings. For example, an environmentally safe lawn care solution to growing grass without chinch bugs would be to use a symbiotic fungus, or endophyte, which doesn’t harm the environment.

Evergreen

Definition: A tree, or plant with foliage, that stays green year-round. Proper evergreen tree maintenance often depends upon weather in your region. Snow, for example, could damage evergreens, especially the Arbor Vitae. Tree care for the Arbor Vitae should include brushing snow gently off the branches by using upward motions with a broom.

Fairy Ring

Definition: A lawn disease where fungi form a ring, killing the grass beneath it. There are many different kinds of fungi that can cause a fairy ring, but no one knows exactly how it becomes established. Folklore claims that fairies dancing around in a circle cause the ring in the lawn, giving the grass disease its name. Proper lawn care prevents this lawn disease and other grass diseases.

Fire Ant Control

Definition: Small, reddish ants named for their sting, which burns like fire and causes small bumps wherever the insects have bitten. Proper lawn care often includes destroying the anthills, which can reach as high as 3 feet. Professional lawn treatments may use bait control, and then destroy individual anthill mounds.

Flea & Tick Control

Definition: Lawn repair and renovation services are often the best solution to controlling flea and tick populations. A lawn care service professional normally decides the best measures for both preventive or curative flea and tick control.

Foliage

Definition: The leaves, branches, and needles growing together on a tree, shrub, or other plant. Yard care depends upon proper tree maintenance and shrub care. A total yard care program will keep roots healthy for lush foliage and an overall healthier outdoor landscape.

Frass

Definition: Excrement from insects that usually includes a mixture of food and plant debris. Certain types of frass can help identify insects for a total lawn care solution. Look for coloring and texture to determine what insects are crawling in your lawn. A lawn care service can help combat insect infestations with lawn repair and renovation programs.

Fungicide

Definition: A treatment that helps with growing grass by eliminating grass diseases, such as brown patch , red thread , and other common lawn diseases. Spring-Green offers specific fungicide programs as part of a total lawn care approach.

Fungus

Definition: A group of organisms which does not use the sunshine to produce food. Mushrooms, a fungus, appearing in an arc formation are often indicators of fairy rings, a lawn disease. Proper grass care includes lawn treatment that controls and eliminates these diseases.

Germination

Definition: The beginning stages of growth for a plant rising from its seed. In terms of grass, lawn care depends on properly encouraging seed germination. Fall is often the best time for seeding a lawn. Total lawn care, however, requires a professional service that can help you decipher whether lawn seeding and repair, or overseeding a lawn, is proper grass care for your outdoor landscape.

Goosegrass

Definition: A weed, also known as wiregrass, that grows annually in the summertime. It grows in coarse, tight bunches and is the target of many different weed control programs. Proper turf care often includes having weed prevention that keeps this weed from crowding grass.

Granule

Definition: Small, grain-like substance used in a weed control lawn treatment that helps with growing grass. Proper granular weed prevention begins with a total lawn care program.

Grass Diseases

Definition: An impairment that harms healthy growing grass. Brown patch lawn disease, red thread lawn disease, and fairy rings, are all forms of grass diseases that can hurt or kill a lush lawn. A total lawn care plan should include prevention of lawn diseases along with proper weed control and lawn fertilization.

Grasslike Plants

Definition: Weeds that resemble grass, such as goosegrass. These plants crowd growing grass and make turf care difficult without a proper weed control and prevention program.

Grassy Weed Control

Definition:  Weeds disguised as normal grasses require proper weed prevention. These plants, such as goosegrass, crowd growing grass and requires proper lawn weed control.

Green Spaces

Definition: Areas of outdoor landscape containing lush, well-maintained grasses and non-weed plant life. Creating this space is often accomplished through a total lawn care program including weed control and prevention, tree maintenance, lawn aeration, and other specific programs designed specifically to care for a lawn.

Greenbug

Definition: An aphid, or very small insect, that usually attacks turf grass. Turf care often includes lawn treatment that targets these pests.

Ground Ivy

Definition: A perennial weed that crowds growing grass and is particularly difficult to control without a proper weed control program.

Grub Control

Definition: Grubs are thick, worm-like larvae born of insects, usually beetles, which feed on grass roots and attract moles. A total lawn care program should include measures to control grub populations before it’s too late. Proper grub control means making sure preventative and curative measures are taken before extensive damage occurs, making lawn repair necessary.

Gypsy Moth

Definition: A common name for a European moth found in North America, that is a particular pest to shade trees. These moths make tree care difficult because they eat foliage, causing trees to die. Proper tree maintenance should include treatments that prevent large populations of these moths.

Herbicide

Definition: A chemical agent used in weed control. Yard and lawn care often means using herbicides to kill weeds and grasslike plants that crowd growing grass.

Host to Fleas and Ticks

Definition: A person, or animal, that carries a symbiotic or parasitic insect. A dog carrying fleas or a person with a tick are examples. People, or animals, become hosts when ticks, fleas, or other unwanted pests, invade their green spaces. Regular lawn and tree care helps keep fleas and ticks controlled.

Humus

Definition: The organic, decomposed matter comprising the main element of good soil. Small amounts of thatch provide moisture for humus production, which helps growing grass. Lawn aeration, or core aeration, reduces unwanted thatch and provides air to the soil. This helps growing grass to gain the necessary nutrients to become thick and lush.

Insecticides

Definition: A substance or chemical that kills insects. Growing grass becomes difficult when chinch bugs or other insects invade. An insecticide is part of grass care regimen which kills harmful pests before they create major damage that leads to lawn reseeding or lawn repair.

Integrated Pest Management

Definition: Incorporating lawn treatment techniques that reduce unwanted bugs, insects, or small animals that interfere with or impede growing grass in a green space environment.

Japanese Beetles

Definition: An insect that starts as a white grub, eats foliage and grass roots, causing widespread turf damage if populations are left unchecked. Care for a lawn usually includes a grass care plan to prevent large beetle populations before lawn repair or lawn seeding becomes necessary.

Kentucky Bluegrass

Definition: A variety of grass that grows best in the cooler weather of spring, fall, and winter. Turf-type varieties require lawn aeration to reduce thatch, and the growing grass requires nitrogen fertilizer. A professional lawn care service can recommend lawn fertilizing and core aeration as part of an overall turf care program.

Kyllinga

Definition: A grass-like plant that grows in moist areas and is the target of weed control programs. In turf, this weed makes for a weak sod. Proper turf care often means weed prevention tactics, such as providing proper drainage.

Label

Definition: A brief description of warning and directions for use that is often found on pesticides, insecticides, and other pest control products. It’s important to read all labels before using any product for weed control, tree care, lawn fertilization, growing grass, or any other lawn treatment.

Larva

Definition: A distinct juvenile form before metamorphosis into adults.  Structure and organs of the juvenile are considerably different from that of the adult.

Lawn Care

Definition: Is the proper maintenance of yards and other green spaces where grass, trees and living plants grow. Total lawn care incorporates such treatments as weed control, lawn fertilizing, and core aeration for complete yard care.

Lawn Care Services

Definition: Routine maintenance provided by professionals experienced with grass care and lawn treatments, who work to ensure healthy growing grass, trees, and shrubs within green spaces.

Lawn Insects

Definition: Although there are insects beneficial to lawn care, many are common pests, including: cinch bugs, fire ants, boxelder bugs, earwigs, grubs, and much more. Lawns are meant to sustain a certain number of insects. When infestations occur, problems arise. Every insect affects growing grass in a different way and some are more harmful than others. Often infestations cause grass to die, which means lawn repair is necessary for grass to grow again.

Leaf Spot

Definition: A phase of a lawn disease in which grass is marked with spots that look like cigarette burns. Leaf spot and melting-out are the common names for a group of grass diseases caused by the same family of fungi. The leaf spot phase happens in the spring and fall, and turns into the melting-out phase in the summer. Lawn aeration, as part of annual turf care, can dry out excessive moisture that’s causing the problem. Combined with lawn fertilization, core aeration can be a successful lawn care treatment plan.

Lesion

Definition: A wound or localized abnormality found on growing grass, trees, shrubs, and other plant life. Lawn diseases and insect infestations can cause visible lesions, which mean proper lawn care, including tree maintenance and core aeration, is necessary to protect green spaces.

Lime

Definition: A substance, produced by heating limestone, used in lawn care to encourage healthy, growing grass. Expert care for a lawn means a customized lawn treatment plan that may include lime along with lawn aeration and fertilization as part of a healthy yard care regimen.

Loam

Definition: An organic mixture of clay, sand, and decaying material that creates a rich soil for growing grass and other plants. With proper care for a lawn, this soil holds moisture well and can produce a luscious green space.

Melting Out

Definition: The second phase of a common group of lawn diseases caused by the same family of fungi. After the first stage, called leaf spot, growing grass dies from root rot in the hot summer months. Leaf spot and melting out, like most grass diseases, can be prevented with proper lawn aeration, fertilization, and overall lawn care.

Microbes

Definition: An important part of the soil ecosystem, containing algae, fungi, protozoa, bacteria, and other crucial substances. In turf grass, soil microbes filter and break down pollutants. Microbes are one benefit of a healthy turf and lawn care program.

Micronutrient

Definition: The vitamins and other nutrients from soil that are required in trace amounts for health. Areas without rich, organic soils may lack micronutrients. Lawn care treatments can help replace these missing vitamins.

Microorganisms

Definition: Also, known as microbes, these living organisms can’t be seen with the naked eye. Microorganisms help break down organic material through decomposition to create rich soils for growing grass and other plant life.

Mosquito Control

Definition: A mosquito is a two-winged insect important to control, because of the biting female which can spread diseases such as West Nile and equine encephalitis. Female mosquitoes take blood from mammals to reproduce in stagnant pools of water. Male mosquitoes are nonbiting, and prefer plant nectar. Lawn care treatments and nets can prevent biting females from ruining your enjoyment of your green space.

Moss

Definition: These fine, green plants have threadlike stems with very small leaves and tend to grow in grassless patches of lawns. Moss doesn’t kill growing grass, because it grows in soil that isn’t conducive to producing healthy grass. Lawn aeration and other lawn care treatments can help control and prepare the soil for growing grass that’s healthy.

Mycelium

Definition:  The threadlike, dense vegetation portion of a fungi. When mycelium dies, it hardens over grass and keeps water from penetrating, effectively killing the once growing grass. This vegetation can be seen in lawn diseases, such as fairy rings. Proper lawn care treatments can prevent or help cure these grass diseases.

Mycorrhizae

Definition: A symbiotic relationship between a plant’s roots and fungi creating a better growing grass, by allowing greater absorption of nutrients and water. Professional lawn care treatments can help nurture this relationship.

Natural Lawn Care

Definition: Natural, or organic, lawn care is a means to care for a lawn by building the soil that feeds the turf grass using organic compounds without using synthetic chemicals or pesticides. This helps create a healthy lawn that is easy on the environment. Natural lawn care entails adding organic compounds to a lawn such as compost or naturally occurring substances. It also indicates an emphasis on the recycling of organic wastes.

Necrosis

Definition: Necrosis, commonly associated with necrotic ring spot, is the localized death of living turf, usually caused by a fungus or pathogen.

Necrotic Ring Spot

Definition: Also, associated with summer patch disease, necrotic ring spot is a turf disease that affects many types of growing grasses, particularly in late spring or early autumn. The symptoms include small, light green patches that grow and turn reddish brown in color, appearing in streaks and circular patterns around a center of relatively healthy green grass. Necrotic ring spot is caused by root-infecting fungi and can be limited with the application of proper lawn and yard care.

Nematode

Definition: A type of microscopic roundworm that dwells in soil and on plant roots. They feed on plant root cells, damaging root systems so the lawn cannot properly absorb water and nutrients. Symptoms of this lawn disease includes irregularly sized yellow, weak or slow to grow grass with short, stunted, swollen, or knotty roots. Proper lawn and yard care can help cultivate pure soil and prevent nematode infestation.

Nutlet

Definition: A small bulb, similar to an onion, that grows at the end of the roots of some weeds (esp. nutsedge). Nutlets make some weeds difficult to eradicate simply by pulling, as they’ll remain dormant in the ground and may sprout new weeds.

Nutsedge

Definition: An aggressive type of weed most commonly found in lawns, vegetable, and flower gardens. Nutsedge is distinguished between other growing grasses by their stems which are triangular or V-shaped with hollow round grass stems. It prefers wet soil and does not grow in shade. Once rooted, it is hard to remove, as the roots produce nutlets that can remain in the soil when the plant and roots have been pulled. With proper lawn and yard care, these types of weeds can be eradicated.

Nymph

Definition: The immature form of some insects, which undergoes incomplete metamorphosis, before reaching adulthood. Unlike typical larva, a nymph’s form already resembles that of an adult. Chinch nymphs can kill lawns and grasses by sucking vital nutrients from the grass blades – while doing so a poison is injected that causes the blade to turn brown and die off. Proper lawn care is necessary to remove and prevent nymph infestations.

Orchard Grass

Definition: A type of tall-growing perennial grass, orchard grass is a productive cool-season growing grass that is tolerant of cold and drought. Orchard grass is fast growing, matures quickly in spring months and grows quickly. It is characterized by a dense root system, green to bluish-green color and ranges from 1 to 4 feet tall as it matures. Orchard grass is suited for pastures and well-draining soils and grows well under trees, hence its name.

Organic Compound

Definition: A naturally occurring substance used for yard and lawn care in place of chemical pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. Organic compounds used to care for a lawn can range from simple household solutions to chemical and fertilizer alternatives.

Organic Fertilizer

Definition: Animal or plant products such as manures, dried blood, bone meal, seaweed, alfalfa meal, compost or other plant or animal byproducts that are used for fertilizer for garden, farm or lawn care. Organic fertilizers are slow release fertilizers, meaning they are decomposed by soil micro-organisms to release nutrients gradually. They are an alternative to synthetic and chemical fertilizers used in conventional lawn care.

Organic Lawn Care

Definition: Organic, or natural, lawn care uses a whole system approach lawn and yard care without using chemicals or synthetic materials. Organic lawn care focuses on a preventative approach to lawn care and on building healthy soil to promote healthy vegetation. Some methods of organic lawn care include mowing high, leaving grass clippings on the lawn and watering less frequently as well as using organic fertilizers and pesticides.

Organic Soil

Definition: Soil that contains only ingredients that have been classified as organic as opposed to commercially produced soil that includes high levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic soil is fed natural nutrients to promote nutrient rich, natural vegetation, and consists of at least 30% organic matter. Some examples of organic soil are peat soil and muck soil.

Organic-Based Fertilizer

Definition: Organic-based fertilizers, or organic fertilizers, are natural fertilizers used for lawn care as an alternative to chemicals and synthetic materials found in common fertilizers. Organic-based fertilizers are animal or plant byproduct enriched by and containing variations of biosolids, municipal compost, animal manures and composted organic byproducts.

Ornamental Bed Weed Control

Definition: The control of weeds that appear in the beds or landscaping that includes ornamental plants and grasses. These weeds can compete for nutrients and water, and spoil the appearance of the landscape. Therefore, proper control of these weeds through lawn and grass care should be maintained in order to preserve the life and decorative appeal of ornamental growth. Preventative measures include pre- and post-emergent herbicide application.

Overseeding

Definition: Putting more seeds down on a lawn in order to improve its density. By planting more seeds than necessary the seeds will germinate more quickly and the growing grass will become much thicker. Overseeding must be done in a methodical way during the right season in order to see positive results. Proper yard and grass care techniques and maintenance following overseeding should be used in order to get the desired yard.

Panicle

Definition: A loose branch cluster of flowers that bloom from the center or bottom of the stem. Common panicles are lilacs or baby’s breath. Panicles can also include grasses where the upper most culm, or central axis of the major grass shoot, connects to a branch or cluster of grass segments. Normal plant care as part of your lawn care services can be provided to maintain panicle growth.

Parasite

Definition: An organism that lives very closely with its host. Parasites are completely dependent on their hosts and utilize them and their resources to live, grow, and multiply. Parasites rarely kill their hosts, but can cause them harm. Having parasites in your lawn or plants can prohibit them from growing well. Therefore, proper parasite control along with yard and lawn care must be used in order to prevent damage to your growing grass or plant life.

Pathogen

Definition: A biological agent that causes disease or harm to its host. Pathogens, such as fungi, are almost always present in the environment and are prevalent causes of lawn and tree disease. Disease occurs when the lawn or yard is not cared for properly and when the environment favors the pathogen. Proper care for a lawn, such as adequate drainage, avoiding over fertilization, and maintaining adequate air movement can help reduce instances of tree and lawn diseases.

Perennial

Definition: Plants and flowers that have a life cycle of three or more years, and are present during all seasons of the year. Types of perennials include woody plants, such as trees and shrubs, as well as, small flowering plants. Perennials flourish in warm spring and summer seasons and die back in the autumn and winter due to their hardy root stock as opposed to seeding. If proper yard care is used, perennial plants can live indefinitely in moderate climates; they require diligent lawn and shrub care if they are […]

Perennial Ryegrass

Definition: Also called English ryegrass, perennial ryegrass is a cool-season bunchgrass native to Europe, Asia and North Africa but distributed around the world. Perennial ryegrass can tolerate high traffic, so it is often planted outside of schools, homes, parks and other high-traffic areas making lawn care and upkeep less burdensome. Perennial ryegrass can be identified by its fine texture, the leaf folded in the bud, parallel leaf margins and a bunchgrass-type growth habit.

Perennial Weeds

Definition: A type of weed that lives for many seasons. Perennial weeds are a flowering weed that can produce both by seeds and by the spread of energy-storing vegetative parts, such as roots or tubers. Regeneration by vegetation is a unique characteristic to perennial weeds, meaning even the smallest root or stem can reproduce an entire plant. Proper lawn care when removing perennial weeds includes removing the entire root system or the use of certain herbicides. Another method to avoid perennial weeds is prevention through appropriate yard care.

Perimeter Pest Control

Definition: A method of pest control designed to create a barrier around the home to repel insects and other pests, preventing them from infiltrating the house. Spiders, mites, crickets, roaches and ants are some of the insects for which perimeter pest control is effective. Perimeter pest control can also help keep landscaping and lawns directly surrounding the house clear of plant-eating insects. Methods of perimeter pest control include an insect spray that is harmless to grass and soil, odorless and is applied outdoors.

Pesticide

Definition: A substance or mix of substances intended for preventing, controlling, repelling or destroying pests. Types of pests include insects, mice and other animals, and bacteria. Pesticides help aid proper lawn and yard care by repelling or destroying insects, bacteria and other pests from harming landscaping or any lawn renovation.

Pet Damage

Definition: Damage to lawns or gardens due to pet urine or feces. Large amounts of pet urine or excrement can result in dead patches on grass or lawn burn which may be surrounded by a green ring. Excessive pet waste may require reseeding or re-sodding. Taking pets for walks or watering the spot after urination is a recommended lawn care method for pet damage and can help prevent further pet damage to grass or gardens.

Pet Friendly Lawn Care

Definition: A method to care for a lawn using pet safe or pet friendly materials, specifically organic or natural fertilizers such as animal manure and non-chemical pesticides. Pet friendly lawn care also includes growing grass and plants that are non-toxic and safe for pets.

pH

Definition: The measure of acidity or basicity of a solution. Acidic solutions have a pH level ranging from 0 to 7.0. Neutral pH level is considered 7.0, and basic solutions have a pH range from 7.0 and 14. Soil pH directly influences the vitality and quality of a lawn. Most lawn grasses grow best in a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. In some cases during lawn care, lime is added to lawns to raise the pH level of acidic soil to the ideal range.

Plant Growth Regulators

Definition: Any substance or mixture of substances intended to accelerate or retard the rate of growth or maturation of grass during lawn renovation or affect the growth of greenhouse plants. Plant-growth regulators (PGRs), also known as plant hormones, are naturally produced by plants.

Poa Annua

Definition: The scientific name given to annual bluegrass, a low-growing and cool-season grass which dies in early summer as the soil top layer begins to dry. Poa annua is distinguished from other grasses by its typical leaf tip shaped like a boat’s bow. Annual bluegrass is considered a winter-annual grassy weed that produces numerous seeds spread easily by birds and man. Poa annua can be controlled with proper weed control and grass care including selective herbicides and plant-growth regulators.

Polystand Community

Definition: A turfgrass community consisting of two or more species or cultivars. Polystand communities can apply to many types of grasses including warm and cool season grass and perennial and annual grass.

Post-emergent Herbicide

Definition: Post-emergent herbicides are used to kill weeds after they have germinated. These specialized herbicides must be used as the plant is actively growing and not simply green. Post-emergent weed control kills existing plants and must be applied with discretion as too heavy or widespread an application can kill nearby desirable plants.

Powdery Mildew

Definition: A fungal disease that can affect a wide variety of plants. Powdery mildew disease is caused by multiple species of fungi and is one of the easier diseases to spot. Symptoms include white powder-like spots on stems and leaves, with lower leaves being most affected. Spots grow larger as the disease progresses and spores begin to form. Proper lawn disease care and prevention has been shown to control powdery mildew.

Power Raking

Definition: Power raking involves using fixed knife-type blades that slice thatch as opposed to ripping it out. Power raking does not cause as much damage as dethatching, causes the lawn to recover more rapidly than dethatching, and  also maintains its density. Power raking removes dead debris and crust that can build up on a lawn over winter.

Pre-emergent

Definition: A preventative approach to a problem, such as preventing weeds from growing before they germinate. Pre-emergent weed control also prevents seedlings from growing to maturity. Herbicides designed to prevent weed growth are applied before the seasonal growth period of the weed during regular yard care.

Pre-emergent Herbicide

Definition: A form of weed control that kills plants as they germinate, prior to the plant’s emergence into the environment. Pre-emergent herbicides are applied during initial lawn care to prevent weeds and unwanted plants from growing. Application depends on the weed’s growth period. It is generally recommended to apply pre-emergent herbicides for summer weeds in the spring, and during fall for winter weeds.

Pupa

Definition:  The state of some insects during a later stage of metamorphosis. Insects in the pupal stage are holometabolous, meaning they undergo a complete metamorphosis and go through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa and imago. The pupal stage is when the adult structures of the insect are formed. Typically insects in this stage cannot move around. Proper lawn care and upkeep can help prevent insects in the pupal stage from invading plant life and growing grass.

Pythium Blight

Definition: One of the most destructive turfgrass diseases. All grasses are susceptible to this attack, but it is most severe during hot or humid conditions. This type of disease can be a result of poorly drained soils, and can severely damage the roots and crown of grasses. Pythium blight usually appears as small spots or patches of blighted grass that appears to be water-soaked or greasy. Good water management and grass care and treatment are essential to keeping this disease under control.

Red Thread

Definition: A type of lawn disease that causes reddish or pink threads to appear throughout a lawn. This disease is typically caused by a fungus that grows on an infected blade of grass. The threads can actually grow an inch beyond the height of a blade, and start off as a creamy, bleached color. Not all blades will be infected, but once a whole patch is infected, the disease can spread to form other patches, and the infected blades will most likely die off. Proper care and lawn treatment can […]

Registered Seed

Definition: A type of high quality, superior seed grown and distributed to ensure genetic purity and identity. Registered seeds must go through a rigorous testing and approval process and are typically used in field crops. Plants grown from registered seed require careful upkeep and maintenance.

Renovation

Definition: When the quality of a lawn is no longer acceptable, a lawn renovation may be required. Renovations can include planting additional seed into a lawn, or adding new grass varieties to repair damage and increase the tolerance of the lawn to shade, wear and tear, or drought. Typically, a renovation isn’t needed unless 20-50% of a lawn has become bare. To prevent lawn renovation, it is necessary to maintain good grass and lawn care. However, a renovation can be the lawn treatment needed to bring a high quality yard […]

Reseeding

Definition: Replanting grass seed on a lawn that needs renovation,  has bare or thinning spots. You can reseed a lawn at almost any time of the year, but it should be done several months before the first frost. The proper lawn maintenance and grass care can help prevent reseeding from needing to be done often.

Residual / Residue

Definition: Left over residue on a lawn sometimes resulting from the use of herbicides or insecticides. Regular lawn and grass care maintenance can help prevent the amount of residual chemicals, or residue.

Rhizome

Definition: Stems of grass or plants that grow below ground. Rhizomes reach out to other root growth of grass or plants in order to form new grass culms, or stems. Since they nurture the plant or grass until it is strong enough to grow on its own, it is important that proper grass care and lawn upkeep be done to preserve and create new rhizomes.

Root

Definition: The part, or organ, of the plant or grass that typically grows below the surface of the soil. Roots that grow above ground are known as aerial. A root that grows below ground lacks nodes, or connecting joints, and has no leaves. A root primarily absorbs water and nutrients and anchors the body of the plant to the ground. Maintaining a good root structure in a lawn is very important. Proper lawn and grass care should be practiced in order to continue to help preserve good root structure and […]

Root Feeding

Definition: A method of fertilizing or feeding a tree that injects beneficial fertilizer directly to the roots. Proper tree care and maintenance, including root feeding, can help prevent against insects that like to feed on roots. Root feeding also helps maintain good tree growth and prolongs the life of your trees by offering the other nutrients not found in the soil alone.

Root Hair

Definition: Tiny hair-like growths that occur on the surface of plant roots. This delicate structure can provide a larger surface area and greater opportunity for the absorption of water, minerals, and nutrients that help nurture the plant. Proper lawn care can help promote the growth of root hair and a healthy lawn.

Rosette

Definition: A circular arrangement of leaves, where all of the leaves are a single height. Typically, most rosettes occur closer to the soil, and are harder to pull out, like those of a dandelion. Regular lawn care services can help prevent the occurrence of hard to pull rosettes and weeds like dandelions.

Rust

Definition: An orange or yellowish powder or spores that appear on blades of grass. This usually happens when weather conditions are dry, or in areas where the grass grows very slowly. These spores can easily be brushed off, but if there is a large area that is infected, rust can be tracked into homes. With proper grass treatment and care, rust can be controlled or even completely prevented.

Ryegrass

Definition: Type of grass that can be annual or perennial and tends to grow in bunches. Ryegrass can be planted as a pure strain or in mixtures depending on the lawn. Ryegrass grows quite rapidly and does well in cooler temperatures. This type of grass can add a little different color and texture to your lawn landscape and is easily maintained with regular lawn care and easy maintenance techniques.

Saline Soil

Definition: A soil containing enough soluble salt to negatively affect plant growth. This soil condition can be caused by both natural and artificial means, and is often the result inadequate drainage, which prevents saline from being leached. Proper yard care can reduce the effects of saline soil and facilitate growing grass.

Sand

Definition: A fine but gritty or grainy material produced from the friction between larger rock and mineral fragments. In lawn renovation projects, if the soil is too soft and needs to be firmed up, or the soil composition is less than desirable, sand can be used as filler.

Scab

Definition: A fungal disease found in grass and some fruit trees. The most common and damaging form, fusarium head blight, causes scabs or lesions on golf course grass. Apple trees are also susceptible to scab fungus. An infected apple or crabapple tree will have black or grey-brown lesions on the tree’s leaves and/or fruit. An infected tree or lawn can be treated or controlled through the use of various chemicals.

Scalping

Definition: When more than a third of a leaf shoot of a blade of grass is removed during mowing. This can occur if a lawn is not being mowed frequently enough. Scalping will result in weaker grass, more susceptibility to weeds, and the development of brown patches. Prevent scalping with proper mowing techniques and frequent mowing.

Scorch

Definition: A condition affecting grass that has been exposed to excessive heat from the sun, extended drought periods or improper use of pesticides and lawn fertilizers. Symptoms of scorch include dry, brittle and brown patches of grass.

Sedge

Definition: A large family of plants that resemble grass or rush and typically are found in wetlands or areas with poor soils. Some of the more common and widely known varieties of sedge include water chestnut, papyrus sedge and sawgrass. Nutsedge is another common variety of sedge, and is one of the more prevalent weeds affecting lawns and turf.

Seed Blend

Definition: A blend of grass seeds offering different features that a pure-bred seed can’t offer. Seed blends are highly adaptable, provide different germination speeds and can be tailored to the strengths, weaknesses and features of your yard. Certain blends can even help fight lawn diseases.

Selective Herbicide

Definition: A specific type of herbicide that targets weeds but does not harm the turfgrass that may surround it. Factors such as the type of herbicide being used, how it is formulated, the dosage amounts and the environmental conditions all affect how it targets a weed and the results it produces.

Sheath

Definition: The casing that surrounds the base of a blade of grass just above the roots. The sheath is also referred to as the culm in grasses.

Shoot

Definition: The new growth of a plant, such as a branch on a tree. In growing grass, the shoot comes from a germinated seed.

Short-Lived Perennial

Definition: A self-renewing plant that has a shorter life expectancy than most perennials, and only lasts a few years. New seedlings will typically take the place of the parent plant with proper yard care.

Shrub

Definition: A woody plant that is low to the ground with several branch shoots. Shrub care along with tree maintenance includes winterizing and fertilization, and is an essential part of regular lawn services.

Slime Mold

Definition: A single-cell organism with the characteristics of both animals and plants, slime molds are often found on mulch surrounding plants, shrubs and trees. Though not parasitic, these organisms make tree maintenance and shrub care difficult because they shade the area they infect. Wet conditions stimulate growth.

Slow-release Fertilizer

Definition: Adding nitrates to soil at a slower pace to sustain nutrients for a longer period of time. This form of fertilization eliminates burn and may require fewer applications than regular fertilizer.

Smuts

Definition: A group of parasitic fungi grass diseases that resemble a yeast-like buildup on grass and leaves. Stripe smut and flag smut are two common smuts found on Kentucky bluegrass. While most smuts complete their lifecycle on one plant, they can begin in the ground and readily attack seedlings planted in infected soil.

Snow Mold

Definition: A family of fungi that forms circular, dead patches of grass visible after the snow melts. Snow mold typically is found in pink or gray varieties, both of which can result in death or prolonged damage. A common lawn treatment for snow mold is a fungicide.

Sod

Definition: The surface layer of vegetation that grows in a mat held together by roots. Growing grass on empty patches of dirt may require sod rather than reseeding or overseeding a lawn.

Sod Webworm

Definition: A species of moth larvae that feed on most turfgrass, but tend to prefer Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass and fine fescues, as well as sunny areas. Damage usually begins in spring but is more extensive in the warm summer months of July and August. Larvae build tunnels underneath the soil or in thatch, which makes dethatching and lawn aeration two common practices for reducing sod webworm infestations.

Soil

Definition: A material comprised of decomposed organic material, rock and living organisms that is essential to growing grass and other plant life. Changing a soil’s texture can provide the proper conditions for growth and continual grass care. Changing the mixture of sand, silt, and clay is the best way to create proper soil texture.

Soil Microbes

Definition: A crucial, complex ecosystem, contained in the soil, that includes fungi, algae, bacteria and other organisms. These microbes help break down organic material and convert minerals into soil material.

Soil Probe

Definition: A tool, also known as an auger, used to take soil samples. These tools make it easier to collect a continuous core without disturbing the soil. Testing the core is often the first step to understanding key soil components necessary for growing grass and other plant life.

Spore

Definition: Refers to a single-cell reproductive organism produced by non-flowering plants, fungi, and bacteria. Some lawn diseases are spread through windborne spores.

Spreading Growth Habit

Definition: The way a plant, or grass, grows and develops outward over a flat surface. Some plants choose to spread when growing while others are non-spreading, or grow upright. When seeding or fertilizing a lawn, it is important to pay attention to how grass and plant life are growing.

Spring Green-up

Definition: The beginning of spring when new buds sprout, new leaves unfurl, and lawns start to green-up after the winter. Proper winterizing and lawn fertilization from the season before can help speed up or help along the green-up process.

Spurge

Definition: A group of plants that often have a milky, poisonous juice. There are several different types of spurge including spotted, garden, creeping, nodding, ground, petty, and leafy spurge. These troublesome weeds can steal nutrients and water that your growing grass and plant life need, as well as overgrow shorter plants in gardens and landscapes. Once a lawn or garden is infected, these weeds become even harder to control, so it is important to utilize preventative lawn care treatments to preserve the good health of your lawn or garden.

St. Augustine Grass

Definition: A common lawn grass found in southern portions of the United States. Also, called “carpetgrass,” St. Augustine is a coarse grass preferring dryer, non-compacted soil conditions. St. Augustine grows the best in soil with a pH range of 5.0 to 8.5.

Stem

Definition: The stalk or support of a plant, grass blade, or fungus. This portion is most often infected by different grass diseases, which is why lawn treatments such as lawn fertilizing and core aeration are important to keep stems and growing grass strong and healthy.

Stolon

Definition: A horizontal stem, branch, or root that produces new plants or growth from its buds. Before a plant, or blade of grass, fully matures, the stolon provides a pathway for nutrients and water to get to the rest of the plant or blade. Therefore, healthy stolons are essential to growing strong, long lasting grass and plant life.

Stomata

Definition: The “mouth-like” opening, or pore, on the underside of leaves that allows for gases like carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen to move in and out of the leaf. Stomata will develop according to the environmental conditions they are in.

Summer Annual

Definition: A group of plants, grasses, or weeds, which will flower, produce seed, and then die in one summer season.

Summer Dormancy

Definition: A state of non-growth that grasses may experience during hot summer months. Dormant grass will remain in that state throughout the entire summer season. Green, growing grass, typically, won’t appear again until fall or spring.

Sustainable Lawn Care

Definition: Maintaining a form of lawn care habits that are beneficial to the environment as well as your lawn. Sustainable lawn care includes utilizing more natural fertilizers, saving energy, and properly using clippings along with saving money.

Systemic Pesticide

Definition: A pesticide that moves, typically upward, inside the plant after being absorbed. In some cases, with the proper application, this type of pesticide treatment can have more efficient results.

Tall Fescue

Definition: A cool-season perennial grass that is course in texture and grows rapidly in the spring and fall. Tall fescue performs best in well drained clay soils, and easily adapts to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.

Thatch

A dead, organic layer of stems, leaves and other matter, that accumulates on the surface of the soil below the grass line. Thatch is a helpful element in lawn care it if it is a thin layer, which can limit weed growth and protect some grasses from early frosts. Too much thatch however – over ½ inch thick – encourages insect infestation, an unpleasant growing environment for grasses, and some lawn diseases. Core aeration is the proper lawn treatment for reducing thatch.

Thistle

Definition: A group of flowering plants or weeds that have prickly-edged leaves. The most common thistle has a purple flower, and can become a nuisance in lawn care and treatments.

Tiller

Definition: A daughter plant, or shoot of grass, that has the ability to produce a new plant or stem. Proper lawn care and treatment can help preserve tiller health and the ability of the culm nodes, or axis of the grass blade, to produce more tillers.

Tolerance

Definition: The ability of plants and grasses to withstand the conditions of its environment. All plants and grasses have specific growth habits and environmental preferences that they need in order to be healthy and grow. Knowing the tolerance of the grass or plants you are looking to plant is important to its overall maintenance and health.

Total Lawn Insect Control

Definition: A complete lawn care service that provides insect control for both above and below ground feeding insects. Proper lawn treatment and care can stop lawn damaging insects before they become a problem.

Toxicity

Definition: The toxicity of pesticides and other lawn care chemicals is determined by the level that will kill the bug or weed it is targeting, but not harm other living organisms in the surrounding area.

Transplant

Definition: Moving a tree, shrub, or plant from one place to another. It is important to maintain good tree and shrub care when transplanting, as it can be very stressful to the tree or plant involved. It is also important to keep in mind the current condition of the tree or shrub as well as the new planting location, because every tree, shrub, or plant has different tolerances to climates, soils, and other environmental conditions.

Tree & Shrub Care

Definition: Complete care services that include all aspects of tree and shrub care including fertilization, insect, pest, and disease control, as well as specialty treatments depending on the care your trees or shrubs need.

Tree Maintenance

Definition: Maintaining the health and well-being of trees with treatment and care services that include fertilization, preventing damage from deer and other pests, landscape and transplant planning, and education about feeding and watering habits.

Turf / Turfgrass

Definition: A lawn with densely populated grass, typically found on a golf course or athletic field. Also, refers to the type of grass planted in such a landscape.

Turfgrass Color

Definition: Determined by three main factors including the genetic color, winter color, and the seasonal color/color retention. Genetic color is a turfgrass’s true color and is noted during active growth. Winter color is the color retained during the winter months, and seasonal/color retention is the color as it relates to the specific season.

Turfgrass Management

Definition: The complete management of a turfgrass surface in a residential, business, sports facility, or city park settings. Management includes proper irrigation and trimming practices, pest control and general turfgrass maintenance.

Virus

Definition: Simple structured, microscopic organisms that do not respire or metabolize, but require a biological host to survive and reproduce. Grass and plant life are susceptible to several different kinds of viruses, which can be prevented with proper and regular yard care.

Volatility / Volatilization

Definition: The loss of pesticides through evaporation, or drift, before it has a chance to reach its target surface. Proper application of pesticides, as part of lawn care and maintenance, can prevent volitization.

Warm-season Turfgrass

Definition: A type of grass suited for warm arid and warm humid climates that typically thrive in the southern United States. Warm-season turfgrasses grow the best in climates that are usually in the eighty to ninety degree range.

Weed

Definition: Any invasive, difficult or unattractive plant that grows in an area that is unwanted and detracts from the plants or turfgrass that surrounds it.

Weed and Feed

Definition: A fertilizer and herbicide combination used on lawns to feed the desirable plants and will either prevent a weed from germinating or kill an existing weed.

Weed Control

Definition: The use of mechanical, chemical, or biological means to stop the spread, or prevent the additional growth, of weeds and other invasive plant species. The proper weed control treatment as part of regular lawn care can prevent weeds from continuously coming back and harming your yard or garden.

Wilt

Definition: The limp and lifeless appearance of a plant when it becomes diseased or begins to die; often wilt is the result of a disease or losing water faster than it can be replaced.

Winter Annual

Definition: Winter Annual Plants that germinate in late fall, overwinter as a seedling, and begin growing during early spring warm weather.

Winter Fertilization

Definition: The application of fertilizer that is made after the turf is dormant and has lost its color for the season. Winter fertilization benefits turfgrass because it encourages root growth needed for turf health and density.

Zoysia Grass

Definition: A type of grass that is native to warmer regions in southeastern Asia and New Zealand. Zoysia grass is a popular creeping lawn grass that adds versatility and texture to yards or landscapes.